Histological-cytological analysis process (ILV)

Course numberB3.06651.20.270
Course codeHistoAP
Semester of degree program Semester 2
Mode of delivery Presencecourse
ECTS credits4,0
Language of instruction German

The students are aware of the importance of different histological-cytological examination methods in the histological-cytological analysis process (preanalytics, analytics, postanalytics) in medical diagnostics and research; they can apply them and reflect on preanalytical influencing factors on the examination material as well as apply suitable measures for optimal preservation of the test samples.
They can understand the request for the required histological or cytological examinations, assess whether the study material available is suitable for the requested examination, and assess which data and parameters are necessary for patient and sample identification.
They know the tissue processing, the functional principles and application possibilities of microtomes and can independently produce histological sections of selected organ or tissue preparations.
They know the most important chemical and physical fundamentals of histological and cytological routine and special staining procedures, the basics of enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemical methods and can select and carry out practice-relevant presentation methods on the basis of work instructions.
The students can microscopically reliably assess and quantify the cut and staining qualities and staining patterns as well as cellular structures and structural changes on specimens and implement suitable measures for quality improvement.
They are aware of the need to coordinate and plan work processes in a time saving manner, are able to independently solve new tasks with the aid of manuals, and are aware of the need to track current developments and integrate them into their work. The students are aware of the significance of the cytological or histological findings and their consequences for therapeutic measures and are aware of the temporal dimension of the findings. They can apply appropriate screening methods based on the knowledge of finding nomenclatures and malignancy criteria, can microscopically assess physiological, benign and malignant cell images, know the importance of cell typing, especially in differential diagnosis and are able to detect errors in the implementation of a method; students can assign those errors accordingly and take them during the further course of action into account. In particular, they can microscopically screen cytological specimens (in particular gynecological cell smears), detect cell abnormalities, classify them into a nomenclature and are aware of the responsibility of this activity; i.e. they recognize the consequences of a histological-cytological diagnosis for the patient.
The students can recognize simple mistakes in the implementation of a method, assign them correctly and consider them in the further course of action.
They are able to apply and assess subject-specific quality assurance measures.
Students are able to apply hygiene and safety measures as well as archiving and disposal measures in the histological-cytological laboratory.

Modules of the 1st semester

  • Specific hygiene and safety measures in the histological cytology laboratory
  • Histological-cytological examination material (extraction, shipping, sample acceptance)
  • Tissue processing (fixing, descaling, embedding and pouring process); fixation of cytological preparations (air and moisture fixation)
  • Microtomy (routine and specialty microtomes)
  • Laboratory exercise on microtomy, demonstration on special microtomy / frozen sectioning (including workplace preparation and follow-up)
  • Chemical and physical fundamentals of the most important histological and cytological routine and special stains
  • Immunohistochemical reactions - diagnostic importance of immunohistochemistry, sources of error and their elimination, linkage and outlook - points of contact to molecular biological techniques
  • Practical laboratory exercises on histological, immunohistochemical and cytological analysis methods, including documentation, assessment of quality, preparation of a microscopic preliminary finding in cytodiagnostics (including workstation preparation and follow-up)
  • Microscopic assessment of stained slides and pathological cytopreparations (cut and staining quality) and staining patterns; detection of artefacts and staining errors, their prevention and elimination
  • Documentation - numerical classification (Bethesda system, PAP classification)
  • Quality assurance in the histological-cytological laboratory
  • Automation in histo- and cytotechnics
  • Archiving and disposal

Kühnel W. (2011), Taschenatlas der Zytologie, Histologie und mikroskopischen Anatomie, Thieme;
Sobotta, J. (2005), Sobotta Atlas Histologie: Zytologie, Histologie, Mikroskopische Anatomie, Elsevier;
Lüllmann-Rauch R. (2019), Taschenlehrbuch Histologie, Thieme;
Welsch U. & Deller T. (2018), Lehrbuch Histologie, Elsevier;
Lang G. (2013), Histotechnik - Praxislehrbuch für die biomedizinische Analytik, Springer;
Noll S. & Schaub-Kuhnen S. (2000), Praxis der Immunhistochemie, Urban & Fischer;
Nauth H.F. (2013), Gynäkologische Zytodiagnostik: Lehrbuch und Atlas, Thieme
Fladerer H. et al. (2014), Gynäkologische Zytologie, Breitenseher Publisher;
Books, journals and websites accordingly the current state of knowledge in the respective fields.

Lectures, exercises, demonstrations, discussions